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Open Review: "Shakespeare and New Media"

1 Leave a comment on paragraph 1 0 [1] Beth E. Kolko, Lisa Nakamura, and Gilbert Rodman, “Race in Cyberspace,” in Race in Cyberspace, eds. Beth E. Kolko, Lisa Nakamura, and Gilbert Rodman (New York: Routledge, 2000), 1-13, esp. 10.

2 Leave a comment on paragraph 2 0 [2] Lisa Nakamura, Digitizing Race: Visual Cultures on the Internet (Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2008), 176.

3 Leave a comment on paragraph 3 0 [3] Samuel Crowl, “‘Ocular Proof’: Teaching Othello in Performance,” in Approaches to Teaching Shakespeare’s Othello, eds. Peter Erickson and Maurice Hunt (New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 2005), 162-168, esp. 162.

4 Leave a comment on paragraph 4 0 [4] For YouTube’s rhetoric about its own creation see: http://www.youtube.com/t/about.

5 Leave a comment on paragraph 5 0 [5] See Donald Roberts, Ulla Foehr, and Victoria Rideout’s collective study for the Kaiser Family Foundation: Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8-18 Year-Olds; A Kaiser Family Foundation Study (Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005).

6 Leave a comment on paragraph 6 0 [6] Reduced Shakespeare Company, dir. Paul Kafno, perf. Adam Long, Reed Martin, and Austin Tichenor (Acorn Media, 2003).

7 Leave a comment on paragraph 7 0 [7] Nakamura, Digitizing Race, 171.

8 Leave a comment on paragraph 8 0 [8] Nakamura, Digitizing Race, 184.

9 Leave a comment on paragraph 9 0 [9] Francesca Royster, “Rememorializing Othello: Teaching Othello and the Cultural Memory of Racism,” in Approaches to Teaching Shakespeare’s Othello, ed. Peter Erickson and Maurice Hunt (New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 2005), 53-61, esp. 53.

10 Leave a comment on paragraph 10 0 [10] Kim C. Sturgess, Shakespeare and the American Nation (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004), 33.

11 Leave a comment on paragraph 11 0 [11] These terms and phrases are YouTube’s.

12 Leave a comment on paragraph 12 0 [12] For an overview of the ethical issues facing those doing internet research see: Elizabeth Basset and Kathleen O’Riordan, “Ethics of Internet Research: Contesting the Human Subjects Research Model,” Ethics and Information Technology 4 (2002): 233-247; Amy Bruckman, Ethical Guidelines for Research Online (April 4, 2002): http://www.cc.gatech.edu/~asb/ethics; Elizabeth Buchanan, Readings in Virtual Research Ethics: Issues and Controversies (Hershey, PA: Idea Group Inc, 2003); Charles Ess and Association of Internet Researchers (AoIR), Ethical Decision-Making and Internet Research: Recommendations from the AoIR Ethics Working Committee (November 27, 2002): http://www.aoir.org/reports/ethics.pdf; Heidi McKee and Dànielle Nicole DeVoss, Digital Writing Research: Technologies, Methodologies, and Ethical Issues (Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 2007).

13 Leave a comment on paragraph 13 0 [13] This language comes from the Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP), “Human Subjects Regulations Decision Charts” (September 24, 2004): http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/decisioncharts.htm.

14 Leave a comment on paragraph 14 0 [14] Heidi McKee and James E. Porter, “The Ethics of Digital Writing Research: A Rhetorical Approach,” College Composition and Communication 59 (2008): 711-749, esp. 732.

15 Leave a comment on paragraph 15 0 [15] Susannah Stern, “Studying Adolescents Online: A Consideration of Ethical Issues,” in Readings in Virtual Research Ethics: Issues and Controversies, ed. Elizabeth Buchanan (Hershey, PA: Idea Group Inc, 2003), 274-287; Magdalena Bober, “Virtual Youth Research: An Exploration of Methodologies and Ethical Dilemmas from a British Perspective,” in Readings in Virtual Research Ethics: Issues and Controversies, ed. Elizabeth Buchanan (Hershey, PA: Idea Group Inc, 2003), 288-315.

16 Leave a comment on paragraph 16 0 [16] Bober, “Virtual Youth Research,” 308.

17 Leave a comment on paragraph 17 0 [17] See YouTube’s “A Word on Safety”: http://www.youtube.com/t/safety.

18 Leave a comment on paragraph 18 0 [18] Sherry Turkle, Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995), 261.

19 Leave a comment on paragraph 19 0 [19] Nakamura, Digitizing Race, 35.

20 Leave a comment on paragraph 20 0 [20] Nakamura, Digitizing Race, 34, 35.

21 Leave a comment on paragraph 21 0 [21] Jerry Kang, “Cyber-Race,” Harvard Law Review 113 (2000): 1130-1208, esp. 1181.

22 Leave a comment on paragraph 22 0 [22] See, for example, Jennifer González’s fascinating essay on constructing avatars: Jennifer González, “The Appended Subject: Race and Identity in Digital Assemblage,” in Race in Cyberspace, ed. Beth E. Kolko, Lisa Nakamura, and Gilbert Rodman (New York: Routledge, 2000), 27-50.

23 Leave a comment on paragraph 23 0 [23] See, for example, Tim Rutten, “The Good Generation Gap: The Way that Young People Deal with Race is a Hopeful Sign for Our Politics,” Los Angeles Times (February 6, 2008).

24 Leave a comment on paragraph 24 0 [24] Brendesha Tynes, Lindsay Reynolds, and Patricia Greenfield, “Adolescence, Race, and Ethnicity on the Internet: A Comparison of Discourse in Monitored vs. Unmonitored Chat Rooms,” Applied Developmental Psychology 25 (2004): 667-684, esp. 669.

25 Leave a comment on paragraph 25 0 [25] Tynes, et al, “Adolescence, Race, and Ethnicity on the Internet,” 667, 672.

26 Leave a comment on paragraph 26 0 [26] Tynes, et al, “Adolescence, Race, and Ethnicity on the Internet,” 675.

27 Leave a comment on paragraph 27 0 [27] Sturgess, Shakespeare and the American Nation, 33.

28 Leave a comment on paragraph 28 0 [28] While the video was posted in 2006, this comment was posted in 2008.

29 Leave a comment on paragraph 29 0 [29] YouTube: comment posted in 2008.

30 Leave a comment on paragraph 30 0 [30] YouTube: comment posted in 2008.

31 Leave a comment on paragraph 31 0 [31] YouTube: comment posted in 2008.

32 Leave a comment on paragraph 32 0 [32] At the time this essay is being written (August 2008), Christian Lander’s blog is one of the most popular in the nation: it has logged over 38 million hits to date. See: http://stuffwhitepeoplelike.com.

33 Leave a comment on paragraph 33 0 [33] Christian Lander, “Stuff White People Like: Coldplay,” Vanity Fair/VF Daily (June 16, 2008): http://www.vanityfair.com.

34 Leave a comment on paragraph 34 0 [34] For a fascinating article on the racial differences between the Romans and Goths see: Francesca Royster, “‘White-Limed Walls’: Whiteness and Gothic Extremism in Titus Andronicus,” Shakespeare Quarterly 51 (2000): 432-455.

35 Leave a comment on paragraph 35 0 [35] Othello, dir. Oliver Parker, perf. Laurence Fishburne and Irène Jacob (Castle Rock Entertainment, 1995). For Fishburne’s views on his relationship with Shakespeare see, Harry J. Lennix and Laurence Fishburne, “Two Actors on Shakespeare, Race, and Performance: A Conversation between Harry J. Lennix and Laurence Fishburne,” Shakespeare Bulletin 27.3 (2009): 399-414.

36 Leave a comment on paragraph 36 0 [36] Titus, dir. Julie Taymor, perf. Anthony Hopkins, Jessica Lange, and Harry J. Lennix (Fox Searchlight Productions, 1999). For an interesting take on Lennix’s “gestural” performance of race in Titus see, Margo Hendricks, “Gestures of Performance: Rethinking Race in Contemporary Shakespeare,” in Colorblind Shakespeare: New Perspectives on Race and Performance, ed. Ayanna Thompson (New York: Routledge, 2006), 187-203.

37 Leave a comment on paragraph 37 0 [37] For a discussion of the “linguistic miscegenation” that Aaron threatens in Titus Andronicus see, Ayanna Thompson, Performing Race and Torture on the Early Modern Stage (New York: Routledge, 2008), esp. chapter 3.

38 Leave a comment on paragraph 38 0 [38] Geto Boys, “Damn it Feels Good to be a Gangsta,” Uncut Dope: Geto Boys’ Best (Virgin Records, 1992).

39 Leave a comment on paragraph 39 0 [39] Judith Butler, Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of “Sex” (New York: Routledge, 1993); Susan Gubar, Racechanges: White Skin, Black Face in American Culture (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997); E. Patrick Johnson, Appropriating Blackness: Performance and the Politics of Authenticity (Durham: Duke UP, 2003); and Eric Lott, Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1993).

40 Leave a comment on paragraph 40 0 [40] Reservoir Dogs, dir. Quentin Tarantino, perf. Harvey Keitel, Michael Madsen, and Steve Buscemi (Miramax Films, 1992).

41 Leave a comment on paragraph 41 0 [41] Office Space, dir. Mike Judge, perf. Ron Livingston and Jennifer Aniston (Twentieth Century Fox, 1999).

42 Leave a comment on paragraph 42 0 [42] Geto Boys, “Damn it Feels Good to be a Gangsta.”

43 Leave a comment on paragraph 43 0 [43] Jackie Brown, dir. Quentin Tarantino, perf. Pam Grier, Samuel L. Jackson, and Robert Forster (Miramax Films, 1997); Joe Bosso and Frank Renzulli, “A Hit is a Hit,” The Sopranos, season 1, episode 10 (HBO, 1999); “De Niro and 50 Now That’s Gangster The Hollywood Issue,” Vibe Magazine (March 2008).

44 Leave a comment on paragraph 44 0 [44] Nakamura, Digitizing Race, 184.

45 Leave a comment on paragraph 45 0 [45] YouTube: comment posted in 2008.

46 Leave a comment on paragraph 46 0 [46] Although it is clear that the performance is unified (i.e., it is all performed and shot in one day), it was actually posted as two separate postings on YouTube with the labels “Part 1/2” and “Part 2/2.” Because of the unity of the performance, I treat it as one.

47 Leave a comment on paragraph 47 0 [47] The video actually has subtitles throughout. The dialogue is quoted from the subtitles.

48 Leave a comment on paragraph 48 0 [48] Tricia Rose, Black Noise: Rap Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America (Hanover, CT: Wesleyan UP, 1994), 5.

49 Leave a comment on paragraph 49 0 [49] Susan A. Phillips, “Physical Graffiti West: African American Gang Walks and Semiotic Practice,” in Migrations of Gesture, ed. by Carrie Noland and Sally Ann Ness (Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2008), 31-68, esp. 62.

50 Leave a comment on paragraph 50 0 [50] YouTube: comment posted in 2007.

51 Leave a comment on paragraph 51 0 [51] YouTube: comment posted in 2007.

52 Leave a comment on paragraph 52 0 [52] Lisa Nakamura, Cybertypes: Race, Ethnicity, and Identity on the Internet (New York: Routledge, 2002), 13-14.

53 Leave a comment on paragraph 53 0 [53] YouTube: comment posted in 2007.

54 Leave a comment on paragraph 54 0 [54] YouTube: comments posted in 2007, 2007, 2007, 2008, 2008, 2007, 2007, and 2008, respectively.

55 Leave a comment on paragraph 55 0 [55] YouTube: comment posted 2008.

56 Leave a comment on paragraph 56 0 [56] The sexualized responses to the female student’s portrayal of Desdemona, of course, attempt to reinscribe that pornographic element, but this video does not include them in any way.

57 Leave a comment on paragraph 57 0 [57] Reservoir Dogs, dir. Quentin Tarantino; Pulp Fiction, dir. Quentin Tarantino, perf. John Travolta, Samuel L. Jackson, and Bruce Willis (Miramax Films, 1994).

58 Leave a comment on paragraph 58 0 [58] Eminem, “You Don’t Know,” Eminem Presents the Re-Up (Shady Records, 2006).

59 Leave a comment on paragraph 59 0 [59] The beginning of the video includes a long written prologue about Othello and their “modern day” approach. YouTube: video posted 2007.

60 Leave a comment on paragraph 60 0 [60] Although it is clear that the performance is unified (i.e., it is all performed and shot in one day), it was actually posted as two separate postings on YouTube with the labels “1/2” and “2/2.” Because of the unity of the performance, I treat it as one.

61 Leave a comment on paragraph 61 0 [61] East Clubbers, “It’s a Dream” (2004 single).

62 Leave a comment on paragraph 62 0 [62] Once Upon a Time in China (Wong Fei Hung), dir. Hark Tsui, perf. Jet Li and Rosamund Kwan (Golden Harvest Company, 1991).

63 Leave a comment on paragraph 63 0 [63] Peggy O’Brien, “‘And Gladly Teach’: Books, Articles, and a Bibliography on the Teaching of Shakespeare,” Shakespeare Quarterly 46 (1995): 165-172, esp. 167.

64 Leave a comment on paragraph 64 0 [64] O’Brien, “‘And Gladly Teach,’” 168.

65 Leave a comment on paragraph 65 0 [65] Crowl, “‘Ocular Proof’: Teaching Othello in Performance,” 162.

66 Leave a comment on paragraph 66 0 [66] Leila Christenbury, “Problems with Othello in the High School Classroom,” in Teaching Shakespeare into the Twenty-First Century, ed. Ronald E. Salomone and James E. Davis (Athens: Ohio UP, 1997), 182-190, esp. 183.

67 Leave a comment on paragraph 67 0 [67] Louisa Foulke Newlin and Mary Winslow Poole, “Othello,” in Shakespeare Set Free: Teaching Twelfth Night and Othello, ed. Peggy O’Brien (New York: Washington Square P, 1995), 133-213, esp. 133.

68 Leave a comment on paragraph 68 0 [68] Husna Choudhury, “Othello: What is the Position of Race in a Multicultural English Classroom?” Changing English 14 (2007): 187-200.

69 Leave a comment on paragraph 69 0 [69] Elise Marks, “‘Othello/Me’: Racial Drag and the Pleasures of Boundary-Crossing with Othello,” Comparative Drama 35 (2001): 101-123, esp. 101.

70 Leave a comment on paragraph 70 0 [70] Miranda Johnson-Haddad, “Teaching Othello through Performance Choices,” in Approaches to Teaching Shakespeare’s Othello, eds. Peter Erickson and Maurice Hunt (New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 2005), 156-161, esp. 157.

71 Leave a comment on paragraph 71 0 [71] Johnson-Haddad, “Teaching Othello through Performance Choices,” 160.

72 Leave a comment on paragraph 72 0 [72] Newlin and Poole, “Othello,” 189.

73 Leave a comment on paragraph 73 0 [73] David Bevington and Gavin Witt, “Working in Workshops,” in Teaching Shakespeare Through Performance, ed. Milla Cozart Riggio (New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 1999), 169-183, esp. 170.

74 Leave a comment on paragraph 74 0 [74] Hugh Macrea Richmond, “The Audience’s Role in Othello,” in Othello: New Critical Essays, ed. Philip C. Kolin (New York: Routledge, 2002), 89-101, esp. 94-95.

75 Leave a comment on paragraph 75 0 [75] Karin deGravelles, “You Be Othello: Identification and Boundary in the Classroom,” Pedagogy 11.1 (forthcoming 2011).

76 Leave a comment on paragraph 76 0 [76] Ayanna Thompson, “Practicing a Theory/Theorizing a Practice: An Introduction to Shakespearean Colorblind Casting,” in Colorblind Shakespeare: New Perspectives on Race and Performance, ed. Ayanna Thompson (New York: Routledge, 2006), 1-24, esp. 11.

77 Leave a comment on paragraph 77 0 [77] Othello, dir. Stuart Burge, perf. Laurence Olivier (BHE Films, 1965).

78 Leave a comment on paragraph 78 0 [78] YouTube: all three comments posted in 2008.

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Source: http://mcpress.media-commons.org/ShakespeareQuarterly_NewMedia/thompson-race-in-performance-based-shakespeare-pedagogy/endnotes/