Open Review: "Shakespeare and New Media"

1 Leave a comment on paragraph 1 0 [1] Richard Burt, Shakespeare after mass media (New York and Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2002), 11. See, for example, Christy Desmet, “Paying Attention in Shakespeare Parody: From Tom Stoppard to YouTube.” Shakespeare Survey 61 (2008): 227-38; Kimberly Harris Fatten, “Welcome to Arden: The World of William Shakespeare.” Futurist July-August 2007, 39-40.

2 Leave a comment on paragraph 2 0 [2] Christie Carson, “The Evolution of Online Editing: Where Will It End?” Shakespeare Survey 59 (2006): 168-81; Michael Best, “The Internet Shakespeare Editions: Scholarly Shakespeare on the Web.” Shakespeare 4 (2008): 221-33; Peter S. Donaldson, “Digital Archive as Expanded Text: Shakespeare and Electronic Textuality.”, in Electronic Text: Investigations in Method and Theory, ed. Kathryn Sutherland (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997), 173-97; Stephen Clarke, “Changing Technology, Changing Shakespeare, or Our Daughter Is a Misprint”, in English in the Digital Age: Information Communications Technology and the Teaching of English, ed. Andrew Goodwyn (London: Cassell, 2004), 103-14; Katherine Wright, “A Brave New World: Teaching Shakespeare Online.” Shakespeare 7.2 (2003), 39-40.

3 Leave a comment on paragraph 3 0 [3] See, for example, Sonia Massai, “Redefining the Role of the Editor for the Electronic Medium: A New Internet Shakespeare Edition of Edward III.” Early Modern Literary Studies 9.3 (2004) 1-10, http://purl.oclc.org/emls; W. B. Worthen, “Performing Shakespeare in Digital Culture” in The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare and Popular Culture ed. Robert Shaughnessy (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2007), 227-47.

4 Leave a comment on paragraph 4 0 [4] Katherine Rowe, “Medium-specificity and other critical scripts for screen Shakespeare”, in Alternative Shakespeares 3, ed. Diana E. Henderson (Abingdon: Routledge, 2008), 34-53 (36).

5 Leave a comment on paragraph 5 0 [5] J. David Bolter and Richard A. Grusin, “Remediation”, Configurations 4.3 (1996) 311-358 (338-340). The concept of “remediation” has begun to be incorporated into Shakespeare studies, particularly when focussing on film adaptation. See, for example, Peter S. Donaldson, “Remediation: Hamlet among the Pixelvisionaries: Video Art, Authenticity, and “Wisdom” in Almereyda’s Hamlet.” in A Concise Companion to Shakespeare on Screen, ed. Diana E. Henderson (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), 216-37; and Thomas Cartelli, “Channelling the Ghosts: The Wooster Group’s Remediation of the 1964 Electronovision Hamlet.” Shakespeare Survey 61 (2008): 147-60.

6 Leave a comment on paragraph 6 0 [6] Philip Auslander, Liveness:Performance in a mediatised culture (Abingdon: Routledge 2008 (2nd edition)), 13-14.

7 Leave a comment on paragraph 7 0 [7] Christie Carson, “Democratising the Audience?”, in Shakespeare’s Globe: A Theatrical Experiment, ed. Christie Carson and Farah Karim-Cooper (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2008), 115-126.

8 Leave a comment on paragraph 8 0 [8] See, for example, Adrian Payne, Kaj Storbacka, Pennie Frow and Simon Knox, “Co-creating brands: diagnosing and designing the relationship experience”, Journal of Business Research 62 (2009), 379–389; Caroline Tynan and Sally McKechnie, “Experience marketing: a review and reassessment”, Journal of Marketing Management 25.5/6 (2009), 501–517; C.K. Prahalad and V. Ramaswamy, “Co-creation experiences: the next practice in value creation”, Journal of Interactive Marketing 18.3 (Summer 2004), 5–14; Stephen L. Vargo and Robert F. Lusch, “Evolving a services dominant logic”, Journal of Marketing 68 (January 2004), 1–17.

9 Leave a comment on paragraph 9 0 [9] See “Finance Director’s Report”, Royal Shakespeare Company Annual Report 2008-9, http://www.rsc.org.uk/downloads/pdfs/annualreport2009.pdf, 42; and “Trustee’s Annual Report 2008/9”, Annual Accounts 2008/9, http://www.bl.uk/about/annual/2008to2009/accounts.pdf, 40.

10 Leave a comment on paragraph 10 0 [10] “Supporting the SBT”, Shakespeare’s Birthplace Trust, http://www.shakespeare.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=43&Itemid=43)

11 Leave a comment on paragraph 11 0 [11] “Support Us”, Shakespeare’s Globe, http://www.shakespeares-globe.org/supportus/.

12 Leave a comment on paragraph 12 0 [12] “About the RSC”, Royal Shakespeare Company,

13 Leave a comment on paragraph 13 0 [13] Dominic Dromgoole, “2010 Theater Season”, Shakespeare’s Globe, http://www.shakespeares-globe.org/theater/annualtheaterseason/.

14 Leave a comment on paragraph 14 0 [14] Home page, Shakespeare’s Globe, http://www.shakespeares-globe.org/. In “About the Globe”, the website declares that the Globe’s mission is to “further the experience and international understanding of Shakespeare in performance”, Shakespeare’s Globe, http://www.shakespeares-globe.org/abouttheglobe/.

15 Leave a comment on paragraph 15 0 [15] Margaret Hodge, “Margaret Hodge’s speech to the Theatrical Management Association Winter Conference”, http://www.culture.gov.uk/reference_library/minister_speeches/2007.aspx.

16 Leave a comment on paragraph 16 0 [16] Department for Media, Culture and Sport and Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, Digital Britain Final Report, June 2009, http://www.culture.gov.uk/images/publications/digitalbritain-finalreport-jun09.pdf, 135.

17 Leave a comment on paragraph 17 0 [17] “Exploring Shakespeare”, Royal Shakespeare Company, http://www.rsc.org.uk/explore/.

18 Leave a comment on paragraph 18 0 [18] “Virtual Tour”, Shakespeare’s Globe, http://www.shakespeares-globe.org/virtualtour/.

19 Leave a comment on paragraph 19 0 [19] “Adopt an Actor”, Shakespeare’s Globe, http://www.globe-education.org/discovery-space/adopt-an-actor.

20 Leave a comment on paragraph 20 0 [20] “Globe Education: Research”, Shakespeare’s Globe, http://www.shakespeares-globe.org/globeeducation/research/.

21 Leave a comment on paragraph 21 0 [21] See choices available from home page, Shakespeare’s Birthplace Trust, http://www.shakespeare.org.uk/.

22 Leave a comment on paragraph 22 0 [22] “Online Gallery: Turning the Pages”, British Library, http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/ttp/ttpbooks.html.

23 Leave a comment on paragraph 23 0 [23] “Treasures in Full: Shakespeare in Quarto”, British Library, http://www.bl.uk/treasures/shakespeare/homepage.html.

24 Leave a comment on paragraph 24 0 [24] John Clarke, “Framing the Arts: The Role of Cultural Institutions”, Stencilled occasional paper / University of Birmingham. Center for Contemporary Cultural Studies. General series ; SP No.32, Paper from Symposium on Sport and Leisure in Contemporary Society, Polytechnic of Central London, 11 January, 1975, 6.

25 Leave a comment on paragraph 25 0 [25] John Wyver, ““What hour now”?”, Illuminations: Essential Media about the Arts, http://www.illuminationsmedia.co.uk/blog/index.cfm?start=1&news_id=339.

26 Leave a comment on paragraph 26 0 [26] “16-25”, Royal Shakespeare Company, http://www.rsc.org.uk/content/6455.aspx.

27 Leave a comment on paragraph 27 0 [27] “…remediation operates in both directions: users of older media such as film and television can seek to appropriate and refashion digital graphics, just as digital graphics artists seek to refashion film and television”, Bolter and Grusin, 342.

28 Leave a comment on paragraph 28 0 [28] Synovate, “Consuming digital arts: understanding of and engagement with arts in the digital arena amongst the general public” (2009), http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/media/uploads/Consuming-digital-arts.pdf, 21-4. Arts Council England commissioned this research as part of a three year “digital opportunities” programme, which seeks to investigate “the impact of digital technology on how the public perceive, understand and engage with the arts”, “how digital technology is transforming art and artistic practice” and “the implications for content creation, distribution and ownership”. “Digital opportunities”, Arts Council England, http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/about-us/research/digital-opportunities/.

29 Leave a comment on paragraph 29 0 [29] Walter Benjamin, The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, translated by J. A. Underwood (London: Penguin, 2008); Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer, “The culture industry: enlightenment as mass deception”, in Mass Communication and Society, ed. J. Curran, M. Gurevitch and J. Woollacott (London: Edward Arnold, 1977).

30 Leave a comment on paragraph 30 0 [30] See discussion of Albert Borgman, Technology and the Character of Contemporary Life: A Philosophical Inquiry (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984) by Darin Barney, “The Vanishing Table, or, Community in a World That is No World”, in Community in the Digital Age: Philosophy and Practice, ed. Andrew Feenberg and Darin Barney (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2004), 31-52.

31 Leave a comment on paragraph 31 0 [31] Janine Marchessault, “Learning the New Information Order”, in Capital Culture: A Reader on Modernist Legacies, State Institutions, and the Value(s) of Art ed. Jody Berland and Shelley Hornstein (Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2000), 169.

32 Leave a comment on paragraph 32 0 [32] MTM London, “Final Report: Arts Council England – Digital Content Snapshot” (15 May 2009), http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/media/uploads/downloads/MTM-snapshot.pdf, 14, 18. The report finds that “The majority of the RFO sites focus primarily on marketing a live arts experiences or service (88% of sites reviewed).”

33 Leave a comment on paragraph 33 0 [33] Synovate, “Consuming Digital Arts”, 33. “It is those who are most engaged in the arts already who are most likely to explore art online, as a complement to their existing artistic pursuits. The digital space is very unlikely to ‘convert’ those who are currently uninterested in the arts.” This finding is based on online and face-to-face discussions with 90 respondents from three attitudinal groups among the general public: “leading edge” digital technology users, “digital enthusiasts” and “arts enthusiasts”.

34 Leave a comment on paragraph 34 0 [34] MTM note, for example, the limited visibility of more interactive digital materials on the RFO’s websites: to access the RSC’s backstage videos the visitor to the website must click on the “Education” link, then the “Exploring Shakespeare” link, just to reach the relevant section, and then make two further clicks to watch the video; the videos are difficult to stumble across on a Google search. (23)

35 Leave a comment on paragraph 35 0 [35] The Shakespeare Institute’s project “Interrogating cultural value in twenty-first century England: the case of Shakespeare”, which began in 2006, arose partly out of a policy context that sought a new language for discussing the value of culture, not, as then Secretary of State Tessa Jowell put it in 2004, “in terms only of its instrumental benefits to other agendas – education, the reduction of crime, improvements in wellbeing”, but in terms of what culture actually “does in and of itself”. Tessa Jowell, Government and the Value of Culture (London: DCMS, 2004), 8.

36 Leave a comment on paragraph 36 0 [36] John Carey notes that the National Gallery, founded as part of a nineteenth-century mission for public improvement, was located in Trafalgar Square ‘so that the poor could walk to it from the east and the rich drive to it from the west.” John Carey, What good are the arts? (London: Faber and Faber 2005), 98.

37 Leave a comment on paragraph 37 0 [37] “From Access To Participation: Culture, Community and Civil Renewal”, 27 March 2006., Keynote address to the IPPR by Minister for Culture, David Lammy, http://www.ippr.org.uk/events/archive.asp?id=2030&fID=174

38 Leave a comment on paragraph 38 0 [38] Raymond Williams said in the middle of the twentieth century of the tendency towards top-down “cultural diffusionism” that “We should not seek to extend a ready-made culture to the benighted masses.” Resources of Hope: Culture, Democravy, Socialism, edited by R. Gable (London: Verso, 1989), 16. Quoted in Francis Mulhern, Culture/Metaculture (Abingdon: Routledge, 2000), 71. 

39 Leave a comment on paragraph 39 0 [39] Arts Council England, “Our agenda for the arts 2006-8” (London: Arts Council England, May 2006), 2. http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/media/uploads/documents/publications/phpG9nIMt.pdf The new focus on “participation” also saw the commissioning of longitudinal public surveys such as “Taking Part” to collect data about the “frequency of participation and attendance and the reasons why people do and do not participate and attend”. “Taking Part Survey”, Department for Culture, Media and Sport, http://www.culture.gov.uk/reference_library/research_and_statistics/4828.aspx.

40 Leave a comment on paragraph 40 0 [40] Mark Moore, Creating Public Value: Strategic Management in Government (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1995), 28.

41 Leave a comment on paragraph 41 0 [41] Emily Keaney, Public Value and the arts: Literature review (London: Arts Council England, 2006), 3-6.

42 Leave a comment on paragraph 42 0 [42] For documentation of Arts Council England’s year-long public value enquiry, the “Arts Debate”, see http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/about-us/research/public-value-programme/arts-debate-findings/.

43 Leave a comment on paragraph 43 0 [43] See Kate Rumbold, “The Arts Council “Arts Debate”“, Cultural Trends 17.3 (2008) 189-195, for a review of this public value enquiry.

44 Leave a comment on paragraph 44 0 [44] Robert Hewison and John Holden, “Public value as a framework for analysing the value of
heritage: the ideas”, in Capturing the Public Value of Heritage: The Proceedings of the London Conference, 25–26 January 2006, ed. Kate Clark (2006), 14-18 (15), http://www.helm.org.uk/upload/pdf/Public-Value.pdf.

45 Leave a comment on paragraph 45 0 [45] “NHS Punters Speak Out”, Episode 1, first broadcast Friday 8 January 2010, BBC Radio 4.

46 Leave a comment on paragraph 46 0 [46] This orientation was encapsulated in Time magazine’s Person of the Year Award 2006: “…for seizing the reins of the global media, for founding and framing the new digital democracy, for working for nothing and beating the pros at their own game, TIME’s Person of the Year for 2006 is you.” Lev Grossman, “Time’s Person of the Year: You”, Time, Wednesday Dec. 13 2008, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1569514,00.html

47 Leave a comment on paragraph 47 0 [47] Department for Culture, Media and Sport, with the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform and the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills, Creative Britain: New Talents for the New Economy (2008), 1 http://www.culture.gov.uk/images/publications/CEPFeb2008.pdf.

48 Leave a comment on paragraph 48 0 [48] Philip Schlesinger, “Creativity: from discourse to doctrine?”, Screen 48:3 (Autumn 2007) 377-387; Kate Oakley, “The disappearing arts: creativity and innovation after the creative industries”, International Journal of Cultural Policy 15.4 (2009): 403-13.

49 Leave a comment on paragraph 49 0 [49] Royal Shakespeare Company, “Annual Report and Accounts, 2005-6”, 9. http://www.rsc.org.uk/downloads/pdfs/annualreport2006.pdf

50 Leave a comment on paragraph 50 0 [50] Royal Shakespeare Company, “Annual Report and Accounts, 2008-9”, 11. http://www.rsc.org.uk/downloads/pdfs/annualreport2009.pdf.

51 Leave a comment on paragraph 51 0 [51] British Library, “The Knowledge Network: Annual Report and Accounts 2008/9”, front page. http://www.bl.uk/about/annual/2008to2009/index.html

52 Leave a comment on paragraph 52 0 [52] Royal Shakespeare Company, “Job Description: Assistant Digital Media Producer”, April 2009. http://www.rsc.org.uk/downloads/pdfs/admp_300_stratford.pdf.

53 Leave a comment on paragraph 53 0 [53] “About the Globe”, Shakespeare’s Globe, http://www.shakespeares-globe.org/information/abouttheglobe/.

54 Leave a comment on paragraph 54 0 [54] “Supporting Wall”, Shakespeare’s Globe, http://www.shakespeares-globe.org/supportus/donations/supportingwall/.

55 Leave a comment on paragraph 55 0 [55] “How has the British Library helped you?”, British Library Reader Bulletin (by email), 14th May 2009.

56 Leave a comment on paragraph 56 0 [56] In a similar move of effacing and asserting their walls, the BL’s Shakespeare Quartos are at once made freely accessible, and heavily branded with the library’s logo. One might wonder what moves the worldwide Shakespeare libraries that contributed copies to the new, even more user-interactive Shakespeare Quartos Archive might make to reclaim to their particular institution the potential value of their digital dissemination.

57 Leave a comment on paragraph 57 0 [57] Royal Shakespeare Company, “David Tennant reprises role in RSC Hamlet for BBC Two”, 29 May 2009 http://www.rsc.org.uk/home/8455.aspx.

58 Leave a comment on paragraph 58 0 [58] Shakespeare’s Globe Trust, ‘2006-7 Annual Review’, 2, http://www.shakespeares-globe.org/docs/Annual%20Review%202006-7.pdf.

59 Leave a comment on paragraph 59 0 [59] “On Film”, Shakespeare’s Globe, http://www.shakespeares-globe.org/onfilm/.

60 Leave a comment on paragraph 60 0 [60] Auslander, 1.

61 Leave a comment on paragraph 61 0 [61] See for example John Baker, “The RSC Othello”, John Baker’s Blog, http://johnbakersblog.co.uk/the-rscs-othello/.

62 Leave a comment on paragraph 62 0 [62] See for example “Shakespeare’s Globe Theater, London”, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bv5uN-dzizI&feature=related, “Globe Theater Tour”, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ptgEU91cUzI&feature=related, “William Shakespeare’s Birthplace 15/09/07”, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2heTmwEdtpg.

63 Leave a comment on paragraph 63 0 [63] “The British Library”, facebook, http://www.facebook.com/britishlibrary.

64 Leave a comment on paragraph 64 0 [64] See for example “Luke’s blog”, Royal Shakespeare Company, http://www.rsc.org.uk/whatson/8889.aspx.

65 Leave a comment on paragraph 65 0 [65] “Understanding Shakespeare’s Sonnets”, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LqOrZItROxs.

66 Leave a comment on paragraph 66 0 [66] “Luke’s blog”, Royal Shakespeare Company http://www.rsc.org.uk/whatson/8867.aspx

67 Leave a comment on paragraph 67 0 [67] Royal Shakespeare Company, “Job Description: Assistant Digital Media Producer”

68 Leave a comment on paragraph 68 0 [68] Charles Leadbetter, We-Think: Mass innovation, not mass production (London: Profile Books Limited, 2008).

69 Leave a comment on paragraph 69 0 [69] This post-traditional advertising world of viral marketing via individuals’ self-identification with brands is described in Rob Walker, I’m with the Brand: The secret dialogue between what we buy and who we are (London: Constable and Robinson Ltd, 2008). (See especially Part 2, “murketing”.)

70 Leave a comment on paragraph 70 0 [70] “Royal Shakespeare Company”, Flickr, http://www.flickr.com/groups/rsc/.

71 Leave a comment on paragraph 71 0 [71] At present, the official British Library facebook page boasts 8228 fans, the RSC’s 7614, the SBT’s 336 and the Globe’s 5164.

72 Leave a comment on paragraph 72 0 [72] “The Thrust Stage”, Royal Shakespeare Company: Transforming our Theaters, http://www.rsc.org.uk/transformation/vision/thrust_stage.asp.

73 Leave a comment on paragraph 73 0 [73] “Life, Love and Legacy Exhibition now open!”, Shakespeare’s Birthplace Trust, http://houses.shakespeare.org.uk/visitor_center

74 Leave a comment on paragraph 74 1 [74] Nicola Watson, The Literary Tourist: Readers and Places in Romantic and Victorian Britain (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006).

75 Leave a comment on paragraph 75 0 [75] Arts Council England home page, http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/.

76 Leave a comment on paragraph 76 0 [76] “About CASE”, CASE: the culture and sport evidence programme, Department for Culture, Media and Sport, http://www.culture.gov.uk/case/case.html.

77 Leave a comment on paragraph 77 0 [77] B. Joseph Pine II and James H. Gilmore, The Experience Economy: Work is Theater and Every Business is a Stage (Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business Press, 1999), 2.

78 Leave a comment on paragraph 78 0 [78] Graham Young, “Stratford-upon-Avon brings Shakespeare to life with new exhibition”, Birmingham Mail, April 10 2009, http://www.birminghammail.net/what-is-on-in-birmingham/birmingham-days-out/2009/04/10/stratford-upon-avon-brings-shakespeare-to-life-with-new-exhibition-97319-23355651/.

79 Leave a comment on paragraph 79 0 [79] “The Heart of England Excellence in Tourism Awards”, http://www.tourismawards.visittheheart.co.uk/.

80 Leave a comment on paragraph 80 0 [80] “Themed Design: Sarner brings Shakespeare to life”, Blooloop, http://www.blooloop.com/PressReleases/Themed-Design-Sarner-brings-Shakespeare-to-Life/1431

81 Leave a comment on paragraph 81 0 [81] “John Wolfson pledges private book collection”, Shakespeare’s Globe, http://www.shakespeares-globe.org/abouttheglobe/latestnews/20081106/5657/.

82 Leave a comment on paragraph 82 0 [82] “Consultation results announced for the RSC building project, 31 January 2006”, Royal Shakespeare Company, http://www.rsc.org.uk/press/420_3525.aspx.

83 Leave a comment on paragraph 83 0 [83] Shakespeare Globe Trust, “Annual Review 2007-8”, 6. http://www.shakespeares-globe.org/docs/Annual%20Review%202007-8.pdf.

84 Leave a comment on paragraph 84 0 [84] Michael Boyd, “Artistic Director’s Report”, in Royal Shakespeare Company “Annual Report and Accounts 2008-9”, 15. http://www.rsc.org.uk/downloads/pdfs/annualreport2009.pdf.

85 Leave a comment on paragraph 85 0 [85] Auslander, 3.

86 Leave a comment on paragraph 86 0 [86] Bolter and Grusin, 346. This phenomenon can be observed in the SBT’s “Life, Love and Legacy” exhibition, where the “real” artefacts illuminated are, in the second room in particular, placed to the side of the space, and the viewer’s gaze might more naturally fall on the digital magnification of the pages of the books on the large screen at the center of the back wall.

87 Leave a comment on paragraph 87 0 [87] Steven Connor, Theory and Cultural Value (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992), 3.

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Source: http://mcpress.media-commons.org/ShakespeareQuarterly_NewMedia/rumbold-from-access-to-creativity/endnotes/